دسته‌بندی‌ها

ببینید

دانلود کنید

span{background:#ffffff;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white > span{background:#ffffff;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white > span{height:24px;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:after{content:'';min-height:inherit;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled],.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled]:hover,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled:hover,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:disabled{color:#c0c0c0;cursor:default;pointer-events:none;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled] > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled]:hover > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled:hover > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:disabled > span{background:#F2F2F2;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled] > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled]:hover > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled:hover > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:disabled > span svg{stroke:#c0c0c0;}Watch the video.css-1wkbr6k-IconWrapper{height:24px;margin-left:8px;margin-left:8px;}" target="blank" rel="nofollow">.css-i819mb-CategoryLabel{font-family:"Montserrat",sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-weight:500;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.5px;-moz-letter-spacing:0.5px;-ms-letter-spacing:0.5px;letter-spacing:0.5px;color:#000000;line-height:16px;-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;margin-bottom:8px;}AccelerateBuy Your Next Car FasterSave time by starting your purchase and paperwork online..css-uig4no-SponsoredButton{margin-top:8px;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white{-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;box-sizing:border-box;font-family:"Montserrat",sans-serif;font-size:14px;line-height:16px;font-weight:600;-webkit-letter-spacing:0.5px;-moz-letter-spacing:0.5px;-ms-letter-spacing:0.5px;letter-spacing:0.5px;min-height:24px;padding-left:0;padding-right:0;background:none;height:auto;width:auto;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:focus > span{background:#ffffff;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white > span{background:#ffffff;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white > span{height:24px;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:after{content:'';min-height:inherit;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled],.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled]:hover,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled:hover,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:disabled{color:#c0c0c0;cursor:default;pointer-events:none;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled] > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled]:hover > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled:hover > span,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:disabled > span{background:#F2F2F2;}.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled] > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white[disabled]:hover > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white.disabled:hover > span svg,.css-wi3yay-textButton-white:disabled > span svg{stroke:#c0c0c0;}Watch the video.css-1wkbr6k-IconWrapper{height:24px;margin-left:8px;margin-left:8px;}MP4

book

Book

F om Wikipedia, he f ee e cyclopedia Jump o aviga io Jump o sea ch Medium fo eco di g i fo ma io i he fo m of w i i g o images .mw-pa se -ou pu .ha o e{fo -s yle:i alic}.mw-pa se -ou pu div.ha o e{paddi g-lef :1.6em;ma gi -bo om:0.5em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .ha o e i{fo -s yle: o mal}.mw-pa se -ou pu .ha o e+li k+.ha o e{ma gi - op:-0.5em}No o be co fused wi h Tex book o No ebook. Fo o he uses, see Book (disambigua io ). The Gu e be g Bible, o e of he fi s books o be p i ed usi g he p i i g p ess. .mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba {wid h:22em;floa : igh ;clea : igh ;ma gi :0.5em 0 1em 1em;backg ou d:#f8f9fa;bo de :1px solid #aaa;paddi g:0.2em; ex -alig :ce e ;li e-heigh :1.4em;fo -size:88%;bo de -collapse:collapse;display: able}body.ski -mi e va .mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba {display: able!impo a ;floa : igh !impo a ;ma gi :0.5em 0 1em 1em!impo a }.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -subg oup{wid h:100%;ma gi :0;bo de -spaci g:0}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -lef {floa :lef ;clea :lef ;ma gi :0.5em 1em 1em 0}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba - o e{floa : o e;clea :bo h;ma gi :0.5em 1em 1em 0}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -ou e - i le{paddi g:0 0.4em 0.2em;fo -size:125%;li e-heigh :1.2em;fo -weigh :bold}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba - op-image{paddi g:0.4em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba - op-cap io ,.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -p e i le-wi h- op-image,.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -cap io {paddi g:0.2em 0.4em 0;li e-heigh :1.2em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -p e i le{paddi g:0.4em 0.4em 0;li e-heigh :1.2em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba - i le,.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba - i le-wi h-p e i le{paddi g:0.2em 0.8em;fo -size:145%;li e-heigh :1.2em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba - i le-wi h-p e i le{paddi g:0 0.4em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -image{paddi g:0.2em 0.4em 0.4em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -headi g{paddi g:0.1em 0.4em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -co e {paddi g:0 0.5em 0.4em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -co e -wi h-subg oup{paddi g:0.1em 0.4em 0.2em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -above,.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -below{paddi g:0.3em 0.8em;fo -weigh :bold}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -collapse .sideba -above,.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -collapse .sideba -below{bo de - op:1px solid #aaa;bo de -bo om:1px solid #aaa}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba - avba { ex -alig : igh ;fo -size:115%;paddi g:0 0.4em 0.4em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -lis - i le{paddi g:0 0.4em; ex -alig :lef ;fo -weigh :bold;li e-heigh :1.6em;fo -size:105%}.mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba -lis - i le-c{paddi g:0 0.4em; ex -alig :ce e ;ma gi :0 3.3em}@media(max-wid h:720px){body.mediawiki .mw-pa se -ou pu .sideba {wid h:100%!impo a ;clea :bo h;floa : o e!impo a ;ma gi -lef :0!impo a ;ma gi - igh :0!impo a }}Li e a u e Majo fo ms Novel Poe y D ama Sho s o y Novella Ge es Adve u e Comedy D ama Epic E o ic No se se Ly ic My hopoeia Rogue Roma ce Sa i e Specula ive fic io T agedy T agicomedy Media Pe fo ma ce Play Books Tech iques P ose Poe y His o y a d lis s His o y mode Ou li e Glossa y of e ms Books W i e s Li e a y awa ds poe y Discussio C i icism Theo y (c i ical heo y) Sociology Magazi es  Li e a u e po al.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba {display:i li e;fo -size:88%;fo -weigh : o mal}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba -collapse{floa :lef ; ex -alig :lef }.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba -box ex {wo d-spaci g:0}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba ul{display:i li e-block;whi e-space: ow ap;li e-heigh :i he i }.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba -b acke s::befo e{ma gi - igh :-0.125em;co e :"[ "}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba -b acke s::af e {ma gi -lef :-0.125em;co e :" ]"}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba li{wo d-spaci g:-0.125em}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba -mi i abb {fo -va ia :small-caps;bo de -bo om: o e; ex -deco a io : o e;cu so :i he i }.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba -c -full{fo -size:114%;ma gi :0 7em}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avba -c -mi i{fo -size:114%;ma gi :0 4em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .i fobox . avba {fo -size:100%}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avbox . avba {display:block;fo -size:100%}.mw-pa se -ou pu . avbox- i le . avba {floa :lef ; ex -alig :lef ;ma gi - igh :0.5em}v e A book is a medium fo eco di g i fo ma io i he fo m of w i i g o images, ypically composed of ma y pages (made of papy us, pa chme , vellum, o pape ) bou d oge he a d p o ec ed by a cove .[1] The ech ical e m fo his physical a a geme is codex (plu al, codices). I he his o y of ha d-held physical suppo s fo ex e ded w i e composi io s o eco ds, he codex eplaces i s p edecesso , he sc oll. A si gle shee i a codex is a leaf a d each side of a leaf is a page. As a i ellec ual objec , a book is p o o ypically a composi io of such g ea le g h ha i akes a co side able i ves me of ime o compose a d s ill co side ed as a i ves me of ime o ead. I a es ic ed se se, a book is a self-sufficie sec io o pa of a lo ge composi io , a usage eflec i g ha , i a iqui y, lo g wo ks had o be w i e o seve al sc olls a d each sc oll had o be ide ified by he book i co ai ed. Each pa of A is o le's Physics is called a book. I a u es ic ed se se, a book is he composi io al whole of which such sec io s, whe he called books o chap e s o pa s, a e pa s. The i ellec ual co e i a physical book eed o be a composi io , o eve be called a book. Books ca co sis o ly of d awi gs, e g avi gs o pho og aphs, c osswo d puzzles o cu -ou dolls. I a physical book, he pages ca be lef bla k o ca fea u e a abs ac se of li es o suppo e ies, such as i a accou book, a appoi me book, a au og aph book, a o ebook, a dia y o a ske chbook. Some physical books a e made wi h pages hick a d s u dy e ough o suppo o he physical objec s, like a sc apbook o pho og aph album. Books may be dis ibu ed i elec o ic fo m as ebooks a d o he fo ma s. Al hough i o di a y academic pa la ce a mo og aph is u de s ood o be a specialis academic wo k, a he ha a efe e ce wo k o a schola ly subjec , i lib a y a d i fo ma io scie ce mo og aph de o es mo e b oadly a y o -se ial publica io comple e i o e volume (book) o a fi i e umbe of volumes (eve a ovel like P ous 's seve -volume I Sea ch of Los Time), i co as o se ial publica io s like a magazi e, jou al o ewspape . A avid eade o collec o of books is a bibliophile o colloquially, "bookwo m". A place whe e books a e aded is a bookshop o books o e. Books a e also sold elsewhe e a d ca be bo owed f om lib a ies. Google has es ima ed ha by 2010, app oxima ely 130,000,000 i les had bee published.[2] I some weal hie a io s, he sale of p i ed books has dec eased because of he i c eased usage of ebooks.[3] Co e s 1 E ymology 2 His o y 2.1 A iqui y 2.1.1 Table 2.1.2 Sc oll 2.1.3 Codex 2.1.4 Ma usc ip s 2.1.5 Middle Eas 2.1.6 Wood block p i i g 2.1.7 Movable ype a d i cu abula 2.2 19 h ce u y o 21s ce u ies 2.3 I dia ma usc ip s 2.4 Mesoame ica Codex 3 Mode ma ufac u i g 3.1 P ocesses 3.1.1 Layou 3.1.2 P i i g 3.1.3 Bi di g 3.2 Fi ishi g 4 Digi al p i i g 4.1 Ebook 5 Desig 6 Sizes 7 Types 7.1 By co e 7.1.1 Fic io 7.1.2 No -fic io 7.1.3 U published 7.1.4 O he 7.2 Decodable eade s a d leveli g 7.3 By physical fo ma 8 Lib a ies 9 Ide ifica io a d classifica io 9.1 Classifica io sys ems 10 Uses 11 Ma ke i g 11.1 Seco da y sp ead 11.2 I dus y evolu io 12 Pape a d co se va io 13 See also 14 Ci a io s 15 Ge e al sou ces 16 Fu he eadi g 17 Ex e al li ks E ymology The wo d book comes f om Old E glish bōc, which i u comes f om he Ge ma ic oo *bōk-, cog a e o 'beech'.[4] I Slavic la guages like Russia , Bulga ia , Macedo ia буква bukva—'le e ' is cog a e wi h 'beech'. I Russia , Se bia a d Macedo ia , he wo d букварь (bukva ') o буквар (bukva ) efe s o a p ima y school ex book ha helps you g child e mas e he ech iques of eadi g a d w i i g. I is hus co jec u ed ha he ea lies I do-Eu opea w i i gs may have bee ca ved o beech wood.[5] The La i wo d codex, mea i g a book i he mode se se (bou d a d wi h sepa a e leaves), o igi ally mea 'block of wood'. His o y Mai a icle: His o y of booksThis sec io eeds addi io al ci a io s fo ve ifica io . Please help imp ove his a icle by addi g ci a io s o eliable sou ces. U sou ced ma e ial may be challe ged a d emoved.Fi d sou ces: "Book" –  ews · ewspape s · books · schola  · JSTOR (May 2017) (Lea how a d whe o emove his empla e message) A iqui y Sume ia clay able , cu e ly housed i he O ie al I s i u e a he U ive si y of Chicago, i sc ibed wi h he ex of he poem I a a a d Ebih by he p ies ess E hedua a, he fi s au ho whose ame is k ow [6] Whe w i i g sys ems we e c ea ed i a cie civiliza io s, a va ie y of objec s, such as s o e, clay, ee ba k, me al shee s, a d bo es, we e used fo w i i g; hese a e s udied i epig aphy. Table Mai a icles: Clay able a d Wax able See also: S ylus A able is a physically obus w i i g medium, sui able fo casual a spo a d w i i g. Clay able s we e fla e ed a d mos ly d y pieces of clay ha could be easily ca ied, a d imp essed wi h a s ylus. They we e used as a w i i g medium, especially fo w i i g i cu eifo m, h oughou he B o ze Age a d well i o he I o Age. Wax able s we e pieces of wood cove ed i a coa i g of wax hick e ough o eco d he imp essio s of a s ylus. They we e he o mal w i i g ma e ial i schools, i accou i g, a d fo aki g o es. They had he adva age of bei g eusable: he wax could be mel ed, a d efo med i o a bla k. The cus om of bi di g seve al wax able s oge he (Roma pugilla es) is a possible p ecu so of mode bou d (codex) books.[7] The e ymology of he wo d codex (block of wood) also sugges s ha i may have developed f om woode wax able s.[8] Sc oll Mai a icle: Sc oll Book of he Dead of Hu efe ; c. 1275 BC; i k a d pigme s o papy us; 45 × 90.5 cm; B i ish Museum (Lo do ) Sc olls ca be made f om papy us, a hick pape -like ma e ial made by weavi g he s ems of he papy us pla , he pou di g he wove shee wi h a hamme -like ool u il i is fla e ed. Papy us was used fo w i i g i A cie Egyp , pe haps as ea ly as he Fi s Dy as y, al hough he fi s evide ce is f om he accou books of Ki g Nefe i ka e Kakai of he Fif h Dy as y (abou 2400 BC).[9] Papy us shee s we e glued oge he o fo m a sc oll. T ee ba k such as lime a d o he ma e ials we e also used.[10] Acco di g o He odo us (His o y 5:58), he Phoe icia s b ough w i i g a d papy us o G eece a ou d he 10 h o 9 h ce u y BC. The G eek wo d fo papy us as w i i g ma e ial (biblio ) a d book (biblos) come f om he Phoe icia po ow Byblos, h ough which papy us was expo ed o G eece.[11] F om G eek we also de ive he wo d ome (G eek: τόμος), which o igi ally mea a slice o piece a d f om he e bega o de o e "a oll of papy us". Tomus was used by he La i s wi h exac ly he same mea i g as volume (see also below he expla a io by Isido e of Seville). Whe he made f om papy us, pa chme , o pape , sc olls we e he domi a fo m of book i he Helle is ic, Roma , Chi ese, Heb ew, a d Macedo ia cul u es. The mo e mode codex book fo ma fo m ook ove he Roma wo ld by la e a iqui y, bu he sc oll fo ma pe sis ed much lo ge i Asia. Codex Mai a icle: Codex A Chi ese bamboo book mee s he mode defi i io of Codex Isido e of Seville (d. 636) explai ed he he -cu e ela io be wee codex, book a d sc oll i his E ymologiae (VI.13): "A codex is composed of ma y books; a book is of o e sc oll. I is called codex by way of me apho f om he u ks (codex) of ees o vi es, as if i we e a woode s ock, because i co ai s i i self a mul i ude of books, as i we e of b a ches." Mode usage diffe s. A codex (i mode usage) is he fi s i fo ma io eposi o y ha mode people would ecog ize as a "book": leaves of u ifo m size bou d i some ma e alo g o e edge, a d ypically held be wee wo cove s made of some mo e obus ma e ial. The fi s w i e me io of he codex as a fo m of book is f om Ma ial, i his Apopho e a CLXXXIV a he e d of he fi s ce u y, whe e he p aises i s compac ess. Howeve , he codex eve gai ed much popula i y i he paga Helle is ic wo ld, a d o ly wi hi he Ch is ia commu i y did i gai widesp ead use.[12] This cha ge happe ed g adually du i g he 3 d a d 4 h ce u ies, a d he easo s fo adop i g he codex fo m of he book a e seve al: he fo ma is mo e eco omical, as bo h sides of he w i i g ma e ial ca be used; a d i is po able, sea chable, a d easy o co ceal. A book is much easie o ead, o fi d a page ha you wa , a d o flip h ough. A sc oll is mo e awkwa d o use. The Ch is ia au ho s may also have wa ed o dis i guish hei w i i gs f om he paga a d Judaic ex s w i e o sc olls. I addi io , some me al books we e made, ha equi ed smalle pages of me al, i s ead of a impossibly lo g, u be di g sc oll of me al. A book ca also be easily s o ed i mo e compac places, o side by side i a igh lib a y o shelf space. Ma usc ip s Mai a icle: Ma usc ip Folio 14 ec o of he 5 h ce u y Ve gilius Roma us co ai s a au ho po ai of Vi gil. No e he bookcase (capsa), eadi g s a d a d he ex w i e wi hou wo d spaci g i us ic capi als. The fall of he Roma Empi e i he 5 h ce u y AD saw he decli e of he cul u e of a cie Rome. Papy us became difficul o ob ai due o lack of co ac wi h Egyp , a d pa chme , which had bee used fo ce u ies, became he mai w i i g ma e ial. Pa chme is a ma e ial made f om p ocessed a imal ski a d used—mai ly i he pas —fo w i i g o . Pa chme is mos commo ly made of calfski , sheepski , o goa ski . I was his o ically used fo w i i g docume s, o es, o he pages of a book. Pa chme is limed, sc aped a d d ied u de e sio . I is o a ed, a d is hus diffe e f om lea he . This makes i mo e sui able fo w i i g o , bu leaves i ve y eac ive o cha ges i ela ive humidi y a d makes i eve o awhide if ove ly we . Mo as e ies ca ied o he La i w i i g adi io i he Wes e Roma Empi e. Cassiodo us, i he mo as e y of Viva ium (es ablished a ou d 540), s essed he impo a ce of copyi g ex s.[13] S . Be edic of Nu sia, i his Rule of Sai Be edic (comple ed a ou d he middle of he 6 h ce u y) la e also p omo ed eadi g.[14] The Rule of Sai Be edic (Ch. XLVIII), which se aside ce ai imes fo eadi g, g ea ly i flue ced he mo as ic cul u e of he Middle Ages a d is o e of he easo s why he cle gy we e he p edomi a eade s of books. The adi io a d s yle of he Roma Empi e s ill domi a ed, bu slowly he peculia medieval book cul u e eme ged. The Codex Amia i us a ach o is ically depic s he Biblical Ez a wi h he ki d of books used i he 8 h Ce u y AD. Befo e he i ve io a d adop io of he p i i g p ess, almos all books we e copied by ha d, which made books expe sive a d compa a ively a e. Smalle mo as e ies usually had o ly a few doze books, medium-sized pe haps a few hu d ed. By he 9 h ce u y, la ge collec io s held a ou d 500 volumes a d eve a he e d of he Middle Ages, he papal lib a y i Avig o a d Pa is lib a y of he So bo e held o ly a ou d 2,000 volumes.[15] The sc ip o ium of he mo as e y was usually loca ed ove he chap e house. A ificial ligh was fo bidde fo fea i may damage he ma usc ip s. The e we e five ypes of sc ibes: Callig aphe s, who deal i fi e book p oduc io Copyis s, who deal wi h basic p oduc io a d co espo de ce Co ec o s, who colla ed a d compa ed a fi ished book wi h he ma usc ip f om which i had bee p oduced Illumi a o s, who pai ed illus a io s Rub ica o s, who pai ed i he ed le e s Bu gu dia au ho a d sc ibe Jea Miélo , f om his Mi acles de No e Dame, 15 h ce u y. The bookmaki g p ocess was lo g a d labo ious. The pa chme had o be p epa ed, he he u bou d pages we e pla ed a d uled wi h a blu ool o lead, af e which he ex was w i e by he sc ibe, who usually lef bla k a eas fo illus a io a d ub ica io . Fi ally, he book was bou d by he bookbi de .[16] Desk wi h chai ed books i he Mala es ia a Lib a y of Cese a, I aly. Diffe e ypes of i k we e k ow i a iqui y, usually p epa ed f om soo a d gum, a d la e also f om gall u s a d i o vi iol. This gave w i i g a b ow ish black colo , bu black o b ow we e o he o ly colo s used. The e a e ex s w i e i ed o eve gold, a d diffe e colo s we e used fo illumi a io . Fo ve y luxu ious ma usc ip s he whole pa chme was colo ed pu ple, a d he ex was w i e o i wi h gold o silve (fo example, Codex A ge eus).[17] I ish mo ks i oduced spaci g be wee wo ds i he 7 h ce u y. This facili a ed eadi g, as hese mo ks e ded o be less familia wi h La i . Howeve , he use of spaces be wee wo ds did o become commo place befo e he 12 h ce u y. I has bee a gued ha he use of spaci g be wee wo ds shows he a si io f om semi-vocalized eadi g i o sile eadi g.[18] The fi s books used pa chme o vellum (calfski ) fo he pages. The book cove s we e made of wood a d cove ed wi h lea he . Because d ied pa chme e ds o assume he fo m i had befo e p ocessi g, he books we e fi ed wi h clasps o s aps. Du i g he la e Middle Ages, whe public lib a ies appea ed, up o he 18 h ce u y, books we e of e chai ed o a bookshelf o a desk o p eve hef . These chai ed books a e called lib i ca e a i. A fi s , books we e copied mos ly i mo as e ies, o e a a ime. Wi h he ise of u ive si ies i he 13 h ce u y, he Ma usc ip cul u e of he ime led o a i c ease i he dema d fo books, a d a ew sys em fo copyi g books appea ed. The books we e divided i o u bou d leaves (pecia), which we e le ou o diffe e copyis s, so he speed of book p oduc io was co side ably i c eased. The sys em was mai ai ed by secula s a io e s guilds, which p oduced bo h eligious a d o - eligious ma e ial.[19] Judaism has kep he a of he sc ibe alive up o he p ese . Acco di g o Jewish adi io , he To ah sc oll placed i a sy agogue mus be w i e by ha d o pa chme a d a p i ed book would o do, hough he co g ega io may use p i ed p aye books a d p i ed copies of he Sc ip u es a e used fo s udy ou side he sy agogue. A sofe "sc ibe" is a highly espec ed membe of a y obse va Jewish commu i y. Middle Eas This sec io possibly co ai s i app op ia e o misi e p e ed ci a io s ha do o ve ify he ex . Please help imp ove his a icle by checki g fo ci a io i accu acies. (Sep embe 2010) (Lea how a d whe o emove his empla e message) People of va ious eligious (Jews, Ch is ia s, Zo oas ia s, Muslims) a d e h ic backg ou ds (Sy iac, Cop ic, Pe sia , A ab e c.) i he Middle Eas also p oduced a d bou d books i he Islamic Golde Age (mid 8 h ce u y o 1258), developi g adva ced ech iques i Islamic callig aphy, mi ia u es a d bookbi di g. A umbe of ci ies i he medieval Islamic wo ld had book p oduc io ce e s a d book ma ke s. Yaqubi (d. 897) says ha i his ime Baghdad had ove a hu d ed bookselle s.[20] Book shops we e of e si ua ed a ou d he ow 's p i cipal mosque[21] as i Ma akesh, Mo occo, ha has a s ee amed Ku ubiyyi o book selle s i E glish a d he famous Kou oubia Mosque is amed so because of i s loca io i his s ee . The medieval Muslim wo ld also used a me hod of ep oduci g eliable copies of a book i la ge qua i ies k ow as check eadi g, i co as o he adi io al me hod of a si gle sc ibe p oduci g o ly a si gle copy of a si gle ma usc ip . I he check eadi g me hod, o ly "au ho s could au ho ize copies, a d his was do e i public sessio s i which he copyis ead he copy aloud i he p ese ce of he au ho , who he ce ified i as accu a e."[22] Wi h his check- eadi g sys em, "a au ho migh p oduce a doze o mo e copies f om a si gle eadi g," a d wi h wo o mo e eadi gs, "mo e ha o e hu d ed copies of a si gle book could easily be p oduced."[23] By usi g as w i i g ma e ial he ela ively cheap pape i s ead of pa chme o papy us he Muslims, i he wo ds of Pede se "accomplished a fea of c ucial sig ifica ce o o ly o he his o y of he Islamic book, bu also o he whole wo ld of books".[24] Wood block p i i g Bagh p i , a adi io al woodblock p i i g i Bagh Madhya P adesh, I dia. I woodblock p i i g, a elief image of a e i e page was ca ved i o blocks of wood, i ked, a d used o p i copies of ha page. This me hod o igi a ed i Chi a, i he Ha dy as y (befo e 220 AD), as a me hod of p i i g o ex iles a d la e pape , a d was widely used h oughou Eas Asia. The oldes da ed book p i ed by his me hod is The Diamo d Su a (868 AD). The me hod (called woodcu whe used i a ) a ived i Eu ope i he ea ly 14 h ce u y. Books (k ow as block-books), as well as playi g-ca ds a d eligious pic u es, bega o be p oduced by his me hod. C ea i g a e i e book was a pai s aki g p ocess, equi i g a ha d-ca ved block fo each page; a d he wood blocks e ded o c ack, if s o ed fo lo g. The mo ks o people who w o e hem we e paid highly. Movable ype a d i cu abula A 15 h-ce u y I cu able. No ice he bli d- ooled cove , co e bosses a d clasps. Mai a icles: Movable ype a d I cu able Selec ed Teachi gs of Buddhis Sages a d So Mas e s, he ea lies k ow book p i ed wi h movable me al ype, p i ed i Ko ea, i 1377, Biblio hèque a io ale de F a ce. The Chi ese i ve o Bi She g made movable ype of ea he wa e c. 1045, bu he e a e o k ow su vivi g examples of his p i i g. A ou d 1450, i wha is commo ly ega ded as a i depe de i ve io , Joha es Gu e be g i ve ed movable ype i Eu ope, alo g wi h i ova io s i cas i g he ype based o a ma ix a d ha d mould. This i ve io g adually made books less expe sive o p oduce, a d mo e widely available. Ea ly p i ed books, si gle shee s a d images which we e c ea ed befo e 1501 i Eu ope a e k ow as i cu ables o i cu abula. "A ma bo i 1453, he yea of he fall of Co s a i ople, could look back f om his fif ie h yea o a life ime i which abou eigh millio books had bee p i ed, mo e pe haps ha all he sc ibes of Eu ope had p oduced si ce Co s a i e fou ded his ci y i AD 330."[25] 19 h ce u y o 21s ce u ies S eam-powe ed p i i g p esses became popula i he ea ly 19 h ce u y. These machi es could p i 1,100 shee s pe hou ,[26] bu wo ke s could o ly se 2,000 le e s pe hou .[ci a io eeded] Mo o ype a d li o ype ypese i g machi es we e i oduced i he la e 19 h ce u y. They could se mo e ha 6,000 le e s pe hou a d a e i e li e of ype a o ce. The e have bee ume ous imp oveme s i he p i i g p ess. As well, he co di io s fo f eedom of he p ess have bee imp oved h ough he g adual elaxa io of es ic ive ce so ship laws. See also i ellec ual p ope y, public domai , copy igh . I mid-20 h ce u y, Eu opea book p oduc io had ise o ove 200,000 i les pe yea . Th oughou he 20 h ce u y, lib a ies have faced a eve -i c easi g a e of publishi g, some imes called a i fo ma io explosio . The adve of elec o ic publishi g a d he i e e mea s ha much ew i fo ma io is o p i ed i pape books, bu is made available o li e h ough a digi al lib a y, o CD-ROM, i he fo m of ebooks o o he o li e media. A o -li e book is a ebook ha is available o li e h ough he i e e . Though ma y books a e p oduced digi ally, mos digi al ve sio s a e o available o he public, a d he e is o decli e i he a e of pape publishi g.[27] The e is a effo , howeve , o co ve books ha a e i he public domai i o a digi al medium fo u limi ed edis ibu io a d i fi i e availabili y. This effo is spea headed by P ojec Gu e be g combi ed wi h Dis ibu ed P oof eade s. The e have also bee ew developme s i he p ocess of publishi g books. Tech ologies such as POD o "p i o dema d", which make i possible o p i as few as o e book a a ime, have made self-publishi g (a d va i y publishi g) much easie a d mo e affo dable. O -dema d publishi g has allowed publishe s, by avoidi g he high cos s of wa ehousi g, o keep low-selli g books i p i a he ha decla i g hem ou of p i . I dia ma usc ip s See also: Palm-leaf ma usc ip Goddess Sa aswa i image da ed 132 AD excava ed f om Ka kali ila depic s he holdi g a ma usc ip i he lef ha d ep ese ed as a bou d a d ied palm leaf o bi ch ba k ma usc ip . I I dia a bou ded ma usc ip made of bi ch ba k o palm leaf exis ed side by side si ce a iqui y.[28] The ex i palm leaf ma usc ip s was i sc ibed wi h a k ife pe o ec a gula cu a d cu ed palm leaf shee s; colou i gs we e he applied o he su face a d wiped off, leavi g he i k i he i cised g ooves. Each shee ypically had a hole h ough which a s i g could pass, a d wi h hese he shee s we e ied oge he wi h a s i g o bi d like a book. Mesoame ica Codex The codices of p e-Columbia Mesoame ica (Mexico a d Ce al Ame ica) had he same fo m as he Eu opea codex, bu we e i s ead made wi h lo g folded s ips of ei he fig ba k (ama l) o pla fibe s, of e wi h a laye of whi ewash applied befo e w i i g. New Wo ld codices we e w i e as la e as he 16 h ce u y (see Maya codices a d Az ec codices). Those w i e befo e he Spa ish co ques s seem all o have bee si gle lo g shee s folded co ce i a-s yle, some imes w i e o bo h sides of he local ama l pape . Mode ma ufac u i g Mai a icle: Bookbi di g See also: Publishi g The spi e of he book is a impo a aspec i book desig , especially i he cove desig . Whe he books a e s acked up o s o ed i a shelf, he de ails o he spi e is he o ly visible su face ha co ai s he i fo ma io abou he book. I s o es, i is he de ails o he spi e ha a ac a buye 's a e io fi s . The me hods used fo he p i i g a d bi di g of books co i ued fu dame ally u cha ged f om he 15 h ce u y i o he ea ly 20 h ce u y. While he e was mo e mecha iza io , a book p i e i 1900 had much i commo wi h Gu e be g. Gu e be g's i ve io was he use of movable me al ypes, assembled i o wo ds, li es, a d pages a d he p i ed by le e p ess o c ea e mul iple copies. Mode pape books a e p i ed o pape s desig ed specifically fo p i ed books. T adi io ally, book pape s a e off-whi e o low-whi e pape s (easie o ead), a e opaque o mi imise he show- h ough of ex f om o e side of he page o he o he a d a e (usually) made o igh e calipe o hick ess specifica io s, pa icula ly fo case-bou d books. Diffe e pape quali ies a e used depe di g o he ype of book: Machi e fi ished coa ed pape s, woodf ee u coa ed pape s, coa ed fi e pape s a d special fi e pape s a e commo pape g ades. Today, he majo i y of books a e p i ed by offse li hog aphy.[29] Whe a book is p i ed, he pages a e laid ou o he pla e so ha af e he p i ed shee is folded he pages will be i he co ec seque ce. Books e d o be ma ufac u ed owadays i a few s a da d sizes. The sizes of books a e usually specified as " im size": he size of he page af e he shee has bee folded a d immed. The s a da d sizes esul f om shee sizes ( he efo e machi e sizes) which became popula 200 o 300 yea s ago, a d have come o domi a e he i dus y. B i ish co ve io s i his ega d p evail h oughou he E glish-speaki g wo ld, excep fo he USA. The Eu opea book ma ufac u i g i dus y wo ks o a comple ely diffe e se of s a da ds. P ocesses Layou Pa s of a mode case bou d book Mode bou d books a e o ga ized acco di g o a pa icula fo ma called he book's layou . Al hough he e is g ea va ia io i layou , mode books e d o adhe e o as se of ules wi h ega d o wha he pa s of he layou a e a d wha hei co e usually i cludes. A basic layou will i clude a f o cove , a back cove a d he book's co e which is called i s body copy o co e pages. The f o cove of e bea s he book's i le (a d sub i le, if a y) a d he ame of i s au ho o edi o (s). The i side f o cove page is usually lef bla k i bo h ha dcove a d pape back books. The ex sec io , if p ese , is he book's f o ma e , which i cludes all ex ual ma e ial af e he f o cove bu o pa of he book's co e such as a fo ewo d, a dedica io , a able of co e s a d publishe da a such as he book's edi io o p i i g umbe a d place of publica io . Be wee he body copy a d he back cove goes he e d ma e which would i clude a y i dices, se s of ables, diag ams, glossa ies o lis s of ci ed wo ks ( hough a edi ed book wi h seve al au ho s usually places ci ed wo ks a he e d of each au ho ed chap e ). The i side back cove page, like ha i side he f o cove , is usually bla k. The back cove is he usual place fo he book's ISBN a d maybe a pho og aph of he au ho (s)/ edi o (s), pe haps wi h a sho i oduc io o hem. Also he e of e appea plo summa ies, ba codes a d exce p ed eviews of he book.[30] P i i g Book cove s Some books, pa icula ly hose wi h sho e u s (i.e. fewe copies) will be p i ed o shee -fed offse p esses, bu mos books a e ow p i ed o web p esses, which a e fed by a co i uous oll of pape , a d ca co seque ly p i mo e copies i a sho e ime. As he p oduc io li e ci cula es, a comple e "book" is collec ed oge he i o e s ack, ex o a o he , a d a o he web p ess ca ies ou he foldi g i self, delive i g bu dles of sig a u es (sec io s) eady o go i o he ga he i g li e. No e ha he pages of a book a e p i ed wo a a ime, o as o e comple e book. Excess umbe s a e p i ed o make up fo a y spoilage due o make- eadies o es pages o assu e fi al p i quali y. A make- eady is he p epa a o y wo k ca ied ou by he p essme o ge he p i i g p ess up o he equi ed quali y of imp essio . I cluded i make- eady is he ime ake o mou he pla e o o he machi e, clea up a y mess f om he p evious job, a d ge he p ess up o speed. As soo as he p essma decides ha he p i i g is co ec , all he make- eady shee s will be disca ded, a d he p ess will s a maki g books. Simila make eadies ake place i he foldi g a d bi di g a eas, each i volvi g spoilage of pape . Bi di g Af e he sig a u es a e folded a d ga he ed, hey move i o he bi de y. I he middle of las ce u y he e we e s ill ma y ade bi de s – s a d-alo e bi di g compa ies which did o p i i g, specializi g i bi di g alo e. A ha ime, because of he domi a ce of le e p ess p i i g, ypese i g a d p i i g ook place i o e loca io , a d bi di g i a diffe e fac o y. Whe ype was all me al, a ypical book's wo h of ype would be bulky, f agile a d heavy. The less i was moved i his co di io he be e : so p i i g would be ca ied ou i he same loca io as he ypese i g. P i ed shee s o he o he ha d could easily be moved. Now, because of i c easi g compu e iza io of p epa i g a book fo he p i e , he ypese i g pa of he job has flowed ups eam, whe e i is do e ei he by sepa a ely co ac i g compa ies wo ki g fo he publishe , by he publishe s hemselves, o eve by he au ho s. Me ge s i he book ma ufac u i g i dus y mea ha i is ow u usual o fi d a bi de y which is o also i volved i book p i i g (a d vice ve sa). If he book is a ha dback i s pa h h ough he bi de y will i volve mo e poi s of ac ivi y ha if i is a pape back. U sew bi di g, is ow i c easi gly commo . The sig a u es of a book ca also be held oge he by "Smy h sewi g" usi g eedles, "McCai sewi g", usi g d illed holes of e used i schoolbook bi di g, o " o ch bi di g", whe e gashes abou a i ch lo g a e made a i e vals h ough he fold i he spi e of each sig a u e. The es of he bi di g p ocess is simila i all i s a ces. Sew a d o ch bou d books ca be bou d as ei he ha dbacks o pape backs. Fi ishi g Book pages "Maki g cases" happe s off-li e a d p io o he book's a ival a he bi di g li e. I he mos basic case-maki g, wo pieces of ca dboa d a e placed o o a glued piece of clo h wi h a space be wee hem i o which is glued a hi e boa d cu o he wid h of he spi e of he book. The ove lappi g edges of he clo h (abou 5/8" all ou d) a e folded ove he boa ds, a d p essed dow o adhe e. Af e case-maki g he s ack of cases will go o he foil s ampi g a ea fo addi g deco a io s a d ype. Digi al p i i g Rece developme s i book ma ufac u i g i clude he developme of digi al p i i g. Book pages a e p i ed, i much he same way as a office copie wo ks, usi g o e a he ha i k. Each book is p i ed i o e pass, o as sepa a e sig a u es. Digi al p i i g has pe mi ed he ma ufac u e of much smalle qua i ies ha offse , i pa because of he abse ce of make eadies a d of spoilage. O e migh hi k of a web p ess as p i i g qua i ies ove 2000, qua i ies f om 250 o 2000 bei g p i ed o shee -fed p esses, a d digi al p esses doi g qua i ies below 250. These umbe s a e of cou se o ly app oxima e a d will va y f om supplie o supplie , a d f om book o book depe di g o i s cha ac e is ics. Digi al p i i g has ope ed up he possibili y of p i -o -dema d, whe e o books a e p i ed u il af e a o de is eceived f om a cus ome . Ebook Mai a icle: Ebook A sc ee of a Ki dle e- eade . I he 2000s, due o he ise i availabili y of affo dable ha dheld compu i g devices, he oppo u i y o sha e ex s h ough elec o ic mea s became a appeali g op io fo media publishe s.[31] Thus, he "ebook" was made. The e m ebook is a co ac io of "elec o ic book"; i efe s o a book-le g h publica io i digi al fo m.[32] A ebook is usually made available h ough he i e e , bu also o CD-ROM a d o he fo ms. Ebooks may be ead ei he via a compu i g device wi h a LED display such as a adi io al compu e , a sma pho e o a able compu e ; o by mea s of a po able e-i k display device k ow as a ebook eade , such as he So y Reade , Ba es & Noble Nook, Kobo eReade , o he Amazo Ki dle. Ebook eade s a emp o mimic he expe ie ce of eadi g a p i book by usi g his ech ology, si ce he displays o ebook eade s a e much less eflec ive. Desig Mai a icle: Book desig Book desig is he a of i co po a i g he co e , s yle, fo ma , desig , a d seque ce of he va ious compo e s of a book i o a cohe e whole. I he wo ds of Ja Tschichold, book desig " hough la gely fo go e oday, me hods a d ules upo which i is impossible o imp ove have bee developed ove ce u ies. To p oduce pe fec books hese ules have o be b ough back o life a d applied." Richa d He del desc ibes book desig as "a a ca e subjec " a d efe s o he eed fo a co ex o u de s a d wha ha mea s. Ma y diffe e c ea o s ca co ibu e o book desig , i cludi g g aphic desig e s, a is s a d edi o s. Sizes Mai a icle: Book size Ac ual-size facsimile of he Codex Gigas, also k ow as he 'Devil's Bible' (f om he illus a io a igh ) A page f om he wo ld's la ges book. Each page is h ee a d a half fee wide, five fee all a d a li le ove five i ches hick The size of a mode book is based o he p i i g a ea of a commo fla bed p ess. The pages of ype we e a a ged a d clamped i a f ame, so ha whe p i ed o a shee of pape he full size of he p ess, he pages would be igh side up a d i o de whe he shee was folded, a d he folded edges immed. The mos commo book sizes a e: Qua o (4 o): he shee of pape is folded wice, fo mi g fou leaves (eigh pages) app oxima ely 11–13 i ches (c. 30 cm) all Oc avo (8vo): he mos commo size fo cu e ha dcove books. The shee is folded h ee imes i o eigh leaves (16 pages) up o .mw-pa se -ou pu .f ac{whi e-space: ow ap}.mw-pa se -ou pu .f ac . um,.mw-pa se -ou pu .f ac .de {fo -size:80%;li e-heigh :0;ve ical-alig :supe }.mw-pa se -ou pu .f ac .de {ve ical-alig :sub}.mw-pa se -ou pu .s -o ly{bo de :0;clip: ec (0,0,0,0);heigh :1px;ma gi :-1px;ove flow:hidde ;paddi g:0;posi io :absolu e;wid h:1px}9+3⁄4 i ches (c. 23 cm) all. DuoDecimo (12mo): a size be wee 8vo a d 16mo, up o 7+3⁄4 i ches (c. 18 cm) all Sex odecimo (16mo): he shee is folded fou imes, fo mi g 16 leaves (32 pages) up o 6+3⁄4 i ches (c. 15 cm) all Sizes smalle ha 16mo a e: 24mo: up o 5+3⁄4 i ches (c. 13 cm) all. 32mo: up o 5 i ches (c. 12 cm) all. 48mo: up o 4 i ches (c. 10 cm) all. 64mo: up o 3 i ches (c. 8 cm) all. Small books ca be called bookle s. Sizes la ge ha qua o a e: Folio: up o 15 i ches (c. 38 cm) all. Elepha Folio: up o 23 i ches (c. 58 cm) all. A las Folio: up o 25 i ches (c. 63 cm) all. Double Elepha Folio: up o 50 i ches (c. 127 cm) all. The la ges ex a medieval ma usc ip i he wo ld is Codex Gigas 92 × 50 × 22 cm. The wo ld's la ges book is made of s o e a d is i Ku hodaw Pagoda (Bu ma). Types By co e Novels i a books o e A commo sepa a io by co e a e fic io a d o -fic io books. This simple sepa a io ca be fou d i mos collec io s, lib a ies, a d books o es. The e a e o he ypes such as books of shee music. Fic io Ma y of he books published oday a e "fic io ", mea i g ha hey co ai i ve ed ma e ial, a d a e c ea ive li e a u e. O he li e a y fo ms such as poe y a e i cluded i he b oad ca ego y. Mos fic io is addi io ally ca ego ized by li e a y fo m a d ge e. The ovel is he mos commo fo m of fic io book. Novels a e s o ies ha ypically fea u e a plo , se i g, hemes a d cha ac e s. S o ies a d a a ive a e o es ic ed o a y opic; a ovel ca be whimsical, se ious o co ove sial. The ovel has had a eme dous impac o e e ai me a d publishi g ma ke s.[33] A ovella is a e m some imes used fo fic io p ose ypically be wee 17,500 a d 40,000 wo ds, a d a ovele e be wee 7,500 a d 17,500. A sho s o y may be a y le g h up o 10,000 wo ds, bu hese wo d le g hs va y. Comic books o g aphic ovels a e books i which he s o y is illus a ed. The cha ac e s a d a a o s use speech o hough bubbles o exp ess ve bal la guage. No -fic io A page f om a dic io a y No -fic io books a e i p i ciple based o fac , o subjec s such as his o y, poli ics, social a d cul u al issues, as well as au obiog aphies a d memoi s. Nea ly all academic li e a u e is o -fic io . A efe e ce book is a ge e al ype of o -fic io book which p ovides i fo ma io as opposed o elli g a s o y, essay, comme a y, o o he wise suppo i g a poi of view. A alma ac is a ve y ge e al efe e ce book, usually o e-volume, wi h lis s of da a a d i fo ma io o ma y opics. A e cyclopedia is a book o se of books desig ed o have mo e i -dep h a icles o ma y opics. A book lis i g wo ds, hei e ymology, mea i gs, a d o he i fo ma io is called a dic io a y. A book which is a collec io of maps is a a las. A mo e specific efe e ce book wi h ables o lis s of da a a d i fo ma io abou a ce ai opic, of e i e ded fo p ofessio al use, is of e called a ha dbook. Books which y o lis efe e ces a d abs ac s i a ce ai b oad a ea may be called a i dex, such as E gi ee i g I dex, o abs ac s such as chemical abs ac s a d biological abs ac s. A a las Books wi h ech ical i fo ma io o how o do some hi g o how o use some equipme a e called i s uc io ma uals. O he popula how- o books i clude cookbooks a d home imp oveme books. S ude s ypically s o e a d ca y ex books a d schoolbooks fo s udy pu poses. U published Ma y ypes of book a e p iva e, of e filled i by he ow e , fo a va ie y of pe so al eco ds. Eleme a y school pupils of e use wo kbooks, which a e published wi h spaces o bla ks o be filled by hem fo s udy o homewo k. I US highe educa io , i is commo fo a s ude o ake a exam usi g a blue book. A page f om a o ebook used as ha d w i e dia y The e is a la ge se of books ha a e made o ly o w i e p iva e ideas, o es, a d accou s. These books a e a ely published a d a e ypically des oyed o emai p iva e. No ebooks a e bla k pape s o be w i e i by he use . S ude s a d w i e s commo ly use hem fo aki g o es. Scie is s a d o he esea che s use lab o ebooks o eco d hei o es. They of e fea u e spi al coil bi di gs a he edge so ha pages may easily be o ou . A elepho e di ec o y, wi h busi ess a d eside ce lis i gs. Add ess books, pho e books, a d cale da /appoi me books a e commo ly used o a daily basis fo eco di g appoi me s, mee i gs a d pe so al co ac i fo ma io . Books fo eco di g pe iodic e ies by he use , such as daily i fo ma io abou a jou ey, a e called logbooks o simply logs. A simila book fo w i i g he ow e 's daily p iva e pe so al eve s, i fo ma io , a d ideas is called a dia y o pe so al jou al. Busi esses use accou i g books such as jou als a d ledge s o eco d fi a cial da a i a p ac ice called bookkeepi g ( ow usually held o compu e s a he ha i ha d-w i e fo m). O he The e a e seve al o he ypes of books which a e o commo ly fou d u de his sys em. Albums a e books fo holdi g a g oup of i ems belo gi g o a pa icula heme, such as a se of pho og aphs, ca d collec io s, a d memo abilia. O e commo example is s amp albums, which a e used by ma y hobbyis s o p o ec a d o ga ize hei collec io s of pos age s amps. Such albums a e of e made usi g emovable plas ic pages held i side i a i ged bi de o o he simila holde . Pic u e books a e books fo child e wi h pic u es o eve y page a d less ex (o eve o ex ). Hym als a e books wi h collec io s of musical hym s ha ca ypically be fou d i chu ches. P aye books o missals a e books ha co ai w i e p aye s a d a e commo ly ca ied by mo ks, u s, a d o he devo ed followe s o cle gy. Lap books a e a lea i g ool c ea ed by s ude s. Decodable eade s a d leveli g A leveled book collec io is a se of books o ga ized i levels of difficul y f om he easy books app op ia e fo a eme ge eade o lo ge mo e complex books adequa e fo adva ced eade s. Decodable eade s o books a e a specialized ype of leveled books ha use decodable ex o ly i cludi g co olled lis s of wo ds, se e ces a d s o ies co sis e wi h he le e s a d pho ics ha have bee augh o he eme ge eade . New sou ds a d le e s a e added o highe level decodable books, as he level of i s uc io p og esses, allowi g fo highe levels of accu acy, comp ehe sio a d flue cy. By physical fo ma Ha dcove books Pape back books Ha dcove books have a s iff bi di g. Pape back books have cheape , flexible cove s which e d o be less du able. A al e a ive o pape back is he glossy cove , o he wise k ow as a dus cove , fou d o magazi es, a d comic books. Spi al-bou d books a e bou d by spi als made of me al o plas ic. Examples of spi al-bou d books i clude eache s' ma uals a d puzzle books (c osswo ds, sudoku). Publishi g is a p ocess fo p oduci g p e-p i ed books, magazi es, a d ewspape s fo he eade /use o buy. Publishe s may p oduce low-cos , p e-publica io copies k ow as galleys o 'bou d p oofs' fo p omo io al pu poses, such as ge e a i g eviews i adva ce of publica io . Galleys a e usually made as cheaply as possible, si ce hey a e o i e ded fo sale. Lib a ies Mai a icle: Lib a y The Lib a y of Celsus i Ephesus, Tu key was buil i 135 AD, a d could house a ou d 12,000 sc olls. P iva e o pe so al lib a ies made up of o -fic io a d fic io books, (as opposed o he s a e o i s i u io al eco ds kep i a chives) fi s appea ed i classical G eece. I he a cie wo ld, he mai ai i g of a lib a y was usually (bu o exclusively) he p ivilege of a weal hy i dividual. These lib a ies could have bee ei he p iva e o public, i.e. fo people who we e i e es ed i usi g hem. The diffe e ce f om a mode public lib a y lies i ha hey we e usually o fu ded f om public sou ces. I is es ima ed ha i he ci y of Rome a he e d of he 3 d ce u y he e we e a ou d 30 public lib a ies. Public lib a ies also exis ed i o he ci ies of he a cie Medi e a ea egio (fo example, Lib a y of Alexa d ia).[34] La e , i he Middle Ages, mo as e ies a d u ive si ies had also lib a ies ha could be accessible o ge e al public. Typically o he whole collec io was available o public, he books could o be bo owed a d of e we e chai ed o eadi g s a ds o p eve hef . The begi i g of mode public lib a y begi s a ou d 15 h ce u y whe i dividuals s a ed o do a e books o ow s.[35] The g ow h of a public lib a y sys em i he U i ed S a es s a ed i he la e 19 h ce u y a d was much helped by do a io s f om A d ew Ca egie. This eflec ed classes i a socie y: The poo o he middle class had o access mos books h ough a public lib a y o by o he mea s while he ich could affo d o have a p iva e lib a y buil i hei homes. I he U i ed S a es he Bos o Public Lib a y 1852 Repo of he T us ees es ablished he jus ifica io fo he public lib a y as a ax-suppo ed i s i u io i e ded o ex e d educa io al oppo u i y a d p ovide fo ge e al cul u e.[36] The adve of pape back books i he 20 h ce u y led o a explosio of popula publishi g. Pape back books made ow i g books affo dable fo ma y people. Pape back books of e i cluded wo ks f om ge es ha had p eviously bee published mos ly i pulp magazi es. As a esul of he low cos of such books a d he sp ead of books o es filled wi h hem (i addi io o he c ea io of a smalle ma ke of ex emely cheap used pape backs) ow i g a p iva e lib a y ceased o be a s a us symbol fo he ich. I lib a y a d bookselle s' ca alogues, i is commo o i clude a abb evia io such as "C ow 8vo" o i dica e he pape size f om which he book is made. Whe ows of books a e li ed o a book holde , booke ds a e some imes eeded o keep hem f om sla i g. Ide ifica io a d classifica io ISBN wi h ba code Du i g he 20 h ce u y, lib a ia s we e co ce ed abou keepi g ack of he ma y books bei g added yea ly o he Gu e be g Galaxy. Th ough a global socie y called he I e a io al Fede a io of Lib a y Associa io s a d I s i u io s (IFLA), hey devised a se ies of ools i cludi g he I e a io al S a da d Bibliog aphic Desc ip io (ISBD). Each book is specified by a I e a io al S a da d Book Numbe , o ISBN, which is u ique o eve y edi io of eve y book p oduced by pa icipa i g publishe s, wo ldwide. I is ma aged by he ISBN Socie y. A ISBN has fou pa s: he fi s pa is he cou y code, he seco d he publishe code, a d he hi d he i le code. The las pa is a check digi , a d ca ake values f om 0–9 a d X (10). The EAN Ba codes umbe s fo books a e de ived f om he ISBN by p efixi g 978, fo Bookla d, a d calcula i g a ew check digi . Comme cial publishe s i i dus ialized cou ies ge e ally assig ISBNs o hei books, so buye s may p esume ha he ISBN is pa of a o al i e a io al sys em, wi h o excep io s. Howeve , ma y gove me publishe s, i i dus ial as well as developi g cou ies, do o pa icipa e fully i he ISBN sys em, a d publish books which do o have ISBNs. A la ge o public collec io equi es a ca alogue. Codes called "call umbe s" ela e he books o he ca alogue, a d de e mi e hei loca io s o he shelves. Call umbe s a e based o a Lib a y classifica io sys em. The call umbe is placed o he spi e of he book, o mally a sho dis a ce befo e he bo om, a d i side. I s i u io al o a io al s a da ds, such as ANSI/NISO Z39.41 - 1997, es ablish he co ec way o place i fo ma io (such as he i le, o he ame of he au ho ) o book spi es, a d o "shelvable" book-like objec s, such as co ai e s fo DVDs, video apes a d sof wa e. Books o lib a y shelves a d call umbe s visible o he spi es O e of he ea lies a d mos widely k ow sys ems of ca alogui g books is he Dewey Decimal Sys em. A o he widely k ow sys em is he Lib a y of Co g ess Classifica io sys em. Bo h sys ems a e biased owa ds subjec s which we e well ep ese ed i US lib a ies whe hey we e developed, a d he ce have p oblems ha dli g ew subjec s, such as compu i g, o subjec s ela i g o o he cul u es.[37] I fo ma io abou books a d au ho s ca be s o ed i da abases like o li e ge e al-i e es book da abases. Me ada a, which mea s "da a abou da a" is i fo ma io abou a book. Me ada a abou a book may i clude i s i le, ISBN o o he classifica io umbe (see above), he ames of co ibu o s (au ho , edi o , illus a o ) a d publishe , i s da e a d size, he la guage of he ex , i s subjec ma e , e c. Classifica io sys ems Bliss bibliog aphic classifica io (BC) Chi ese Lib a y Classifica io (CLC) Colo Classifica io Dewey Decimal Classifica io (DDC) Ha va d-Ye chi g Classifica io Lib a y of Co g ess Classifica io (LCC) New Classifica io Scheme fo Chi ese Lib a ies U ive sal Decimal Classifica io (UDC) Uses Aside f om he p ima y pu pose of eadi g hem, books a e also used fo o he e ds: A book ca be a a is ic a ifac , a piece of a ; his is some imes k ow as a a is s' book. A book may be evalua ed by a eade o p ofessio al w i e o c ea e a book eview. A book may be ead by a g oup of people o use as a spa k fo social o academic discussio , as i a book club. A book may be s udied by s ude s as he subjec of a w i i g a d a alysis exe cise i he fo m of a book epo . Books a e some imes used fo hei ex e io appea a ce o deco a e a oom, such as a s udy. Ma ke i g O ce he book is published, i is pu o he ma ke by he dis ibu o s a d he books o es. Mea while, his p omo io comes f om va ious media epo s. Book ma ke i g is gove ed by he law i ma y s a es. Seco da y sp ead I ece yea s, he book had a seco d life i he fo m of eadi g aloud. This is called public eadi gs of published wo ks, wi h he assis a ce of p ofessio al eade s (of e k ow ac o s) a d i close collabo a io wi h w i e s, publishe s, bookselle s, lib a ia s, leade s of he li e a y wo ld a d a is s. Ma y i dividual o collec ive p ac ices exis o i c ease he umbe of eade s of a book. Amo g hem: aba do me of books i public places, coupled o o wi h he use of he I e e , k ow as he bookc ossi g; p ovisio of f ee books i hi d places like ba s o cafes; i i e a o empo a y lib a ies; f ee public lib a ies i he a ea. I dus y evolu io This fo m of he book chai has ha dly cha ged si ce he eigh ee h ce u y, a d has o always bee his way. Thus, he au ho has asse ed g adually wi h ime, a d he copy igh da es o ly f om he i e ee h ce u y. Fo ma y ce u ies, especially befo e he i ve io of p i i g, each f eely copied ou books ha passed h ough his ha ds, addi g if ecessa y his ow comme s. Simila ly, bookselle a d publishe jobs have eme ged wi h he i ve io of p i i g, which made he book a i dus ial p oduc , equi i g s uc u es of p oduc io a d ma ke i g. The i ve io of he I e e , e- eade s, able s, a d p ojec s like Wikipedia a d Gu e be g, a e likely o cha ge he book i dus y fo yea s o come. Pape a d co se va io Mai a icle: Co se va io a d es o a io of books, ma usc ip s, docume s a d epheme a Halfbou d book wi h lea he a d ma bled pape . Pape was fi s made i Chi a as ea ly as 200 BC, a d eached Eu ope h ough Muslim e i o ies. A fi s made of ags, he i dus ial evolu io cha ged pape -maki g p ac ices, allowi g fo pape o be made ou of wood pulp. Pape maki g i Eu ope bega i he 11 h ce u y, al hough vellum was also commo he e as page ma e ial up u il he begi i g of he 16 h ce u y, vellum bei g he mo e expe sive a d du able op io . P i e s o publishe s would of e issue he same publica io o bo h ma e ials, o ca e o mo e ha o e ma ke . Pape made f om wood pulp became popula i he ea ly 20 h ce u y, because i was cheape ha li e o abaca clo h-based pape s. Pulp-based pape made books less expe sive o he ge e al public. This paved he way fo huge leaps i he a e of li e acy i i dus ialised a io s, a d e abled he sp ead of i fo ma io du i g he Seco d I dus ial Revolu io . Pulp pape , howeve , co ai s acid which eve ually des oys he pape f om wi hi . Ea lie ech iques fo maki g pape used limes o e olle s, which eu alized he acid i he pulp. Books p i ed be wee 1850 a d 1950 a e p ima ily a isk; mo e ece books a e of e p i ed o acid-f ee o alkali e pape . Lib a ies oday have o co side mass deacidifica io of hei olde collec io s i o de o p eve decay. S abili y of he clima e is c i ical o he lo g- e m p ese va io of pape a d book ma e ial.[38] Good ai ci cula io is impo a o keep fluc ua io i clima e s able. The HVAC sys em should be up o da e a d fu c io i g efficie ly. Ligh is de ime al o collec io s. The efo e, ca e should be give o he collec io s by impleme i g ligh co ol. Ge e al housekeepi g issues ca be add essed, i cludi g pes co ol. I addi io o hese helpful solu io s, a lib a y mus also make a effo o be p epa ed if a disas e occu s, o e ha hey ca o co ol. Time a d effo should be give o c ea e a co cise a d effec ive disas e pla o cou e ac a y damage i cu ed h ough "ac s of God", he efo e a eme ge cy ma ageme pla should be i place. See also .mw-pa se -ou pu .po al{bo de :solid #aaa 1px;paddi g:0}.mw-pa se -ou pu .po al. lef {ma gi :0.5em 1em 0.5em 0}.mw-pa se -ou pu .po al. igh {ma gi :0.5em 0 0.5em 1em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .po al>ul{display: able;box-sizi g:bo de -box;paddi g:0.1em;max-wid h:175px;backg ou d:#f9f9f9;fo -size:85%;li e-heigh :110%;fo -s yle:i alic;fo -weigh :bold}.mw-pa se -ou pu .po al>ul>li{display: able- ow}.mw-pa se -ou pu .po al>ul>li>spa :fi s -child{display: able-cell;paddi g:0.2em;ve ical-alig :middle; ex -alig :ce e }.mw-pa se -ou pu .po al>ul>li>spa :las -child{display: able-cell;paddi g:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.3em;ve ical-alig :middle} Books po al .mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col{ma gi - op:0.3em;colum -wid h:30em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col-small{fo -size:90%}.mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col- ules{colum - ule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col dl,.mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col ol,.mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col ul{ma gi - op:0}.mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col li,.mw-pa se -ou pu .div-col dd{page-b eak-i side:avoid;b eak-i side:avoid-colum } Ou li e of books Alphabe book A is 's book Audiobook Bibliodive si y Book bu i g Bookselle s Lis s of books Mi ia u e book Ope access book Socie y fo he His o y of Au ho ship, Readi g a d Publishi g (SHARP) Ci a io s .mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis {fo -size:90%;ma gi -bo om:0.5em;lis -s yle- ype:decimal}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis . efe e ces{fo -size:100%;ma gi -bo om:0;lis -s yle- ype:i he i }.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -colum s-2{colum -wid h:30em}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -colum s-3{colum -wid h:25em}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -colum s{ma gi - op:0.3em}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -colum s ol{ma gi - op:0}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -colum s li{page-b eak-i side:avoid;b eak-i side:avoid-colum }.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -uppe -alpha{lis -s yle- ype:uppe -alpha}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -uppe - oma {lis -s yle- ype:uppe - oma }.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -lowe -alpha{lis -s yle- ype:lowe -alpha}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -lowe -g eek{lis -s yle- ype:lowe -g eek}.mw-pa se -ou pu . eflis -lowe - oma {lis -s yle- ype:lowe - oma } ^ IEILS, p. 41 ^ .mw-pa se -ou pu ci e.ci a io {fo -s yle:i he i }.mw-pa se -ou pu .ci a io q{quo es:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-pa se -ou pu .id-lock-f ee a,.mw-pa se -ou pu .ci a io .cs1-lock-f ee a{backg ou d:li ea -g adie ( a spa e , a spa e ),u l("//upload.wikimedia.o g/wikipedia/commo s/6/65/Lock-g ee .svg") igh 0.1em ce e /9px o- epea }.mw-pa se -ou pu .id-lock-limi ed a,.mw-pa se -ou pu .id-lock- egis a io a,.mw-pa se -ou pu .ci a io .cs1-lock-limi ed a,.mw-pa se -ou pu .ci a io .cs1-lock- egis a io a{backg ou d:li ea -g adie ( a spa e , a spa e ),u l("//upload.wikimedia.o g/wikipedia/commo s/d/d6/Lock-g ay-al -2.svg") igh 0.1em ce e /9px o- epea }.mw-pa se -ou pu .id-lock-subsc ip io a,.mw-pa se -ou pu .ci a io .cs1-lock-subsc ip io a{backg ou d:li ea -g adie ( a spa e , a spa e ),u l("//upload.wikimedia.o g/wikipedia/commo s/a/aa/Lock- ed-al -2.svg") igh 0.1em ce e /9px o- epea }.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-subsc ip io ,.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1- egis a io {colo :#555}.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-subsc ip io spa ,.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1- egis a io spa {bo de -bo om:1px do ed;cu so :help}.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-ws-ico a{backg ou d:li ea -g adie ( a spa e , a spa e ),u l("//upload.wikimedia.o g/wikipedia/commo s/4/4c/Wikisou ce-logo.svg") igh 0.1em ce e /12px o- epea }.mw-pa se -ou pu code.cs1-code{colo :i he i ;backg ou d:i he i ;bo de : o e;paddi g:i he i }.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-hidde -e o {display: o e;fo -size:100%}.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-visible-e o {fo -size:100%}.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-mai {display: o e;colo :#33aa33;ma gi -lef :0.3em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-fo ma {fo -size:95%}.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-ke -lef ,.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-ke -wl-lef {paddi g-lef :0.2em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-ke - igh ,.mw-pa se -ou pu .cs1-ke -wl- igh {paddi g- igh :0.2em}.mw-pa se -ou pu .ci a io .mw-selfli k{fo -weigh :i he i }"Books of he wo ld, s a d up a d be cou ed! All 129,864,880 of you". Augus 5, 2010. Re ieved Augus 15, 2010. Af e we exclude se ials, we ca fi ally cou all he books i he wo ld. The e a e 129,864,880 of hem. A leas u il Su day. ^ Cu is, Geo ge (2011). The Law of Cybe c imes a d Thei I ves iga io s. p. 161. ^ "Book". Dic io a y.com. Re ieved Novembe 6, 2010. ^ "No hveg - Holy La guage Lexico ". Novembe 3, 2008. A chived f om he o igi al o Novembe 3, 2008. Re ieved Decembe 30, 2016. ^ Robe a Bi kley (2004). "Readi g he A cie Figu e of E hedua a". Rhe o ic befo e a d beyo d he G eeks. SUNY P ess. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7914-6099-3. ^ Leila Av i . Sc ibes, Sc ip a d Books, p. 173. ^ Bischoff, Be ha d (1990). La i palaeog aphy a iqui y a d he Middle Ages. Dáibhí ó C ói i . Camb idge: Camb idge U ive si y P ess. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-521-36473-7. ^ Av i , Leila (1991). Sc ibes, sc ip , a d books: he book a s f om a iqui y o he Re aissa ce. New Yo k, New Yo k: Ame ica Lib a y Associa io ; The B i ish Lib a y. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8389-0522-7. ^ Da d Hu e . Pape maki g: His o y a d Tech ique of a A cie C af New ed. Dove Publica io s 1978, p. 12. ^ Leila Av i . Sc ibes, Sc ip a d Books, pp. 144–45. ^ The Camb idge His o y of Ea ly Ch is ia Li e a u e. Edd. F a ces You g, Lewis Ay es, A d ew Lou h, Ro Whi e. Camb idge U ive si y P ess 2004, pp. 8–9. ^ Leila Av i . Sc ibes, Sc ip a d Books, pp. 207–08. ^ Theodo e May a d. Sai Be edic a d His Mo ks. S aples P ess L d 1956, pp. 70–71. ^ Ma i D. Joachim. His o ical Aspec s of Ca alogui g a d Classifica io . Hawo h P ess 2003, p. 452. ^ Edi h Diehl. Bookbi di g: I s Backg ou d a d Tech ique. Dove Publica io s 1980, pp. 14–16. ^ Be ha d Bischoff. La i Palaeog aphy, pp. 16–17. ^ Paul Sae ge . Space Be wee Wo ds: The O igi s of Sile Readi g. S a fo d U ive si y P ess 1997. ^ Be ha d Bischoff. La i Palaeog aphy, pp. 42–43. ^ W. Du a , "The Age of Fai h", New Yo k 1950, p. 236 ^ S.E. Al-Djazai i "The Golde Age of Islamic Civiliza io ", Ma ches e 2996, p. 200 ^ Edmu d Bu ke (Ju e 2009). "Islam a he Ce e : Tech ological Complexes a d he Roo s of Mode i y". Jou al of Wo ld His o y. 20 (2): 165–86 [43]. doi:10.1353/jwh.0.0045. S2CID 143484233. ^ Edmu d Bu ke (Ju e 2009). "Islam a he Ce e : Tech ological Complexes a d he Roo s of Mode i y". Jou al of Wo ld His o y. 20 (2): 165–86 [44]. doi:10.1353/jwh.0.0045. S2CID 143484233. ^ Johs. Pede se , "The A abic Book", P i ce o U ive si y P ess, 1984, p. 59 ^ Clapham, Michael, "P i i g" i A His o y of Tech ology, Vol 2. F om he Re aissa ce o he I dus ial Revolu io , edd. Cha les Si ge e al. (Oxfo d 1957), p. 377. Ci ed f om Elizabe h L. Eise s ei , The P i i g P ess as a Age of Cha ge (Camb idge U ive si y, 1980). ^ B uck e , D. J. R. (Novembe 20, 1995). "How he Ea lie Media Achieved C i ical Mass: P i i g P ess;Yelli g 'S op he P esses!' Did ' Happe Ove igh ". The New Yo k Times. Re ieved Augus 13, 2020. ^ Bowke Repo s T adi io al U.S. Book P oduc io Fla i 2009 A chived Ja ua y 28, 2012, a he Wayback Machi e ^ Kel i g, M. Whi ey (Augus 2, 2001). Si gi g o he Ji as: Jai Laywome , Ma dal Si gi g, a d he Nego ia io s of Jai Devo io . Oxfo d U ive si y P ess. ISBN 978-0-19-803211-3. ^ Ve mee , Leslie (Augus 31, 2016). The Comple e Ca adia Book Edi o . B ush Educa io . ISBN 978-1-55059-677-9. ^ Ga y B. Shelly; Joy L. S a ks (Ja ua y 6, 2011). Mic osof Publishe 2010: Comp ehe sive. Ce gage Lea i g. p. 559. ISBN 978-1-133-17147-8. ^ Rai ie, Lee; Zickuh , Ka h y ; Pu cell, K is e ; Madde , Ma y; B e e , Joa a (Ap il 4, 2012). "The ise of e- eadi g". Pew I e e Lib a ies. Re ieved Feb ua y 2, 2017. ^ "Wha is a e-book". A chived f om he o igi al o July 22, 2012. Re ieved Decembe 30, 2016. ^ Edwi Mcdowell (Oc obe 30, 1989). "The Media Busi ess; Publishe s Wo y Af e Fic io Sales Weake ". The New Yo k Times. Re ieved Ja ua y 25, 2008. ^ Mi iam A. D ake, E cyclopedia of Lib a y a d I fo ma io Scie ce (Ma cel Dekke , 2003), "Public Lib a ies, His o y". ^ Mi iam A. D ake, E cyclopedia of Lib a y, "Public Lib a ies, His o y". ^ McCook, Ka hlee de la Peña (2011), I oduc io o Public Lib a ia ship, 2 d ed., p. 23 New Yo k, Neal-Schuma . ^ Hoffma , G e che L. (Augus 5, 2019). O ga izi g Lib a y Collec io s: Theo y a d P ac ice. Rowma & Li lefield. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-5381-0852-9. ^ Pa kus, Be h (2003). "Assessi g P ese va io Needs, A Self-Su vey Guide". A dove : No heas Docume Co se va io Ce e . Ci e jou al equi es |jou al= (help) Ge e al sou ces "Book", i I e a io al E cyclopedia of I fo ma io a d Lib a y Scie ce ("IEILS"), Edi o s: Joh Fea he , Paul S u ges, 2003, Rou ledge, ISBN 1-134-51321-6, 9781134513215 Fu he eadi g Tim Pa ks (Augus 2017), "The Books We Do ' U de s a d", The New Yo k Review of Books Ex e al li ks Booka Wikipedia's sis e p ojec sDefi i io s f om Wik io a yMedia f om Wikimedia Commo sNews f om Wiki ewsQuo a io s f om Wikiquo eTex s f om Wikisou ceTex books f om WikibooksResou ces f om Wikive si y I fo ma io o Old Books, Smi hso ia Lib a ies "Ma usc ip s, Books, a d Maps: The P i i g P ess a d a Cha gi g Wo ld" v eBooksP oduc io Bi di g Cove s dus jacke s Desig Edi i g Illus a io Illumi a ed ma usc ip s P i i g edi io his o y i cu abula limi ed edi io Publishi g adva ce copy ha dcove pape back Size Typese i g Volume (bibliog aphy) Collec io (publishi g) Book se ies Co sump io Awa ds Bes selle s Bibliog aphy Biblioma ia ( su doku) Bibliophilia Biblio he apy Bookma ks Bookselli g blu bs book ow s used Ce so ship Clubs Collec i g Digi izi g Bookwo m (i sec ) Fu i u e bookcases booke ds Lib a y P i cul u e Readi g li e acy Reviews By cou y B azil F a ce Ge ma y I aly Japa Ne he la ds Pakis a Spai U i ed Ki gdom U i ed S a es O he Ge es fic io al mi ia u e pop-up ex book G imoi e Fo ma s audiobooks Ebooks Coffee able book Rela ed Book packagi g Book swappi g His o y of books Ou li e I ellec ual p ope y ISBN Lis of bes -selli g books P ese va io Dog ea s Wo ld Book Day Wo ld Book Capi al Ou li e Ca ego y Po al v ePape p oduc sCo ai e s Box Ca o Ciga e e pack Coffee cup sleeve Co uga ed box Co uga ed fibe boa d E velope Molded pulp Oys e pail Pape bag Pape cup Pape boa d Shippi g ube Hygie e Facial issue Napki Pape owel Toile pape We wipe S a io e y Co i uous s a io e y G ee i g ca d I dex ca d Le e Ma ila folde No ebook Pos age s amp Pos ca d Pos -i No e Fi a cial Ba k o e Busi ess ca d Coupo Passbook Pay ca d Visi i g ca d Deco a io s I g ai wallpape Ma Wallpape Media Book Newspape Newsp i Pamphle Rec ea io Co fe i Pape c af Pape oys Playi g ca d Quilli g O he D i k coas e Fil e pape Fo m Sa dpape Secu i y pape v eCul u al he i age a d his o ic p ese va io Topics a d issues A chival p ocessi g A chaeological scie ce A chaeology A chive Bioa chaeology Cale da (a chive) Co se va io a d es o a io of cul u al p ope y Co se va io a d es o a io of immovable cul u al p ope y Co se va io a d es o a io of movable cul u al p ope y Co se va io a d es o a io ai i g Co se va io scie ce (cul u al p ope y) Collec i g Collec io (museum) Collec io ca alog Collec io s mai e a ce Collec io s ma ageme Collec io s ma ageme sys em Cul u al he i age Cul u al he i age ma ageme Cul u al p ope y Cul u al p ope y docume a io Cul u al p ope y exhibi io Cul u al p ope y imagi g Cul u al p ope y s o age Cul u al esou ces ma ageme Da abase p ese va io Digi al lib a y Digi al pho og aph es o a io Digi al p ese va io Risk ma ageme (cul u al p ope y) Film p ese va io Fi di g aid Fo ds Fou d i collec io He i age asse He i age scie ce I he e vice I a gible cul u al he i age I eg a ed pes ma ageme (cul u al p ope y) I ve o y (lib a y a d a chive) I ve o y (museum) Media p ese va io Mold co ol a d p eve io (lib a y a d a chive) Museum Op ical media p ese va io P ese va io (lib a y a d a chive) P ese va io me ada a P ese va io su vey P ove a ce Repa ia io Sus ai able p ese va io Web a chivi g Roles a d expe ise A chivis A deale A ha dle Auc io ee Collec io ma age Co se va o - es o e Co se va io scie is Co se va io ech icia Cu a o Exhibi io desig e Mou make Pai i gs co se va o Pho og aph co se va o P ese va io is Regis a (cul u al p ope y) Tex ile co se va o Me hods a d ech iques Agi g (a wo k) A as ylosis A es ed decay C adli g (pai i gs) Cul u al p ope y adiog aphy Deaccessio i g (museum) De achme of wall pai i gs Desme me hod Display case Digi al eposi o y audi me hod based o isk assessme His o ic pai a alysis I pai i g Ki sugi Leafcas i g Li i g of pai i gs Mass deacidifica io Ove pai i g Pape spli i g Rissve klebu g Tex ile s abiliza io T a sfe of pa el pai i gs UVC-based p ese va io VisualAudio Co se va io a d es o a io of immovable cul u al p ope y by i em ype A chaeological si es F escos His o ic ga de s Ou doo a wo ks Ou doo b o ze objec s Ou doo mu als Co se va io a d es o a io of movable cul u al p ope y by i em ype A cie G eek po e y Au omobiles Bo e, ho , a d a le objec s Books, ma usc ip s, docume s a d epheme a Ce amic objec s Clocks Coppe -based objec s Fea he s Film Flags a d ba e s Fu objec s Glass objec s He ba ia Huma emai s Illumi a ed ma usc ip s I sec specime s I o a d s eel objec s Ivo y objec s Judaica Lacque wa e Lea he objec s Ligh houses Me als Musical i s ume s Neo objec s New media a Pai i gs Pai i g f ames Pa el pai i gs Papy us Pa chme Pe fo ma ce a Pho og aphs Pho og aphic pla es Plas ic objec s Shipw eck a ifac s Silve objec s Sou h Asia household sh i es S ai ed glass Taxide my Tex iles Tibe a ha gkas Time-based media a To em poles Vehicles Vi yl discs Woodblock p i s Woode a ifac s Woode fu i u e I a gible cul u al he i age p ese va io Da ce o a io E h opoe ics La guage p ese va io Livi g his o y O al his o y p ese va io P ese va io of mea i g T adi io p ese va io No ablep ojec s Co se va io issues of Pompeii a d He cula eum Co se va io - es o a io of Ecce Homo by Elías Ga cía Ma í ez Co se va io - es o a io of The G oss Cli ic by Thomas Eaki s Co se va io - es o a io of Leo a do da Vi ci's The Las Suppe Pompeia f escoes Co se va io - es o a io of he Sh oud of Tu i Co se va io - es o a io of he Sis i e Chapel f escoes Co se va io - es o a io of he S a ue of Libe y Co se va io - es o a io of he H.L. Hu ley Mode a d Co empo a y A Resea ch I i ia ive P ese va io Me ada a: Impleme a io S a egies v eAcademic publishi gJou als Academic jou al Scie ific jou al Ope access jou al Public heal h jou al Pape s Schola ly pape Review a icle Posi io pape Li e a u e eview G ey li e a u e Wo ki g pape Whi e pape Tech ical epo A ual epo Pamphle Essay Lab o es O he ypes of publica io Thesis (Collec io of a icles, Mo og aph) Specialized pa e (biological, chemical) Book Book chap e Pos e sessio Abs ac Impac a d a ki g Ack owledgme i dex Al me ics A icle-level me ics Au ho -level me ics Bibliome ics Ci a io impac Ci a io i dex Jou al a ki g Eige fac o h-i dex Impac fac o SCImago Jou al Ra k Scie ome ics Refo m Academic jou al publishi g efo m Full- ex -o - he-Ne bias (FUTON bias) Ope access Se ials c isis Sci-Hub #ICa HazPDF Ve sio i g P ep i Pos p i Ve sio of Reco d E a um/co ige dum Re ac io I dexes a d sea ch e gi es Google Schola AMi e BASE Mic osof Academic CORE Sema ic Schola Scopus Web of Scie ce Rela ed opics Imp i Scie ific w i i g Pee eview P oceedi gs Scie ific li e a u e Lea ed socie y Ope esea ch Ope scie ce da a ORCID Elec o ic publishi g I gelfi ge ule Leas publishable u i Publish o pe ish Lis s Academic jou als Scie ific jou als Ope -access jou als Academic da abases a d sea ch e gi es U ive si y p esses Copy igh policies P ep i policies S yle/fo ma i g guides Ca ego y:Academic publishi g Ca ego y:Scie ific docume s Po al v eEbooksFo ma s ePub Fic io Book CBR/CBZ Ki dle File Fo ma Mobipocke PDF Plai ex IBA Readi gDevices Amazo Ki dle Ba es & Noble Nook Bookee Elo ex ebook e Tou age eDGe Ha li eReade iPad i ive S o y Kobo eReade O yx Boox Plas ic Logic Reade Pocke Book eReade Rocke eBook Sof Book Sma pho es Table s Sof wa e Adobe Ac oba Adobe Digi al Edi io s Aldiko Apple Books (iBooks) Aquafadas Blio Bluefi e Reade Calib e FBReade Folia e Google Play Books Ki dle app Ki abu Kobo Lec o Lek z Lucifox Mic osof Reade MuPDF Okula Ove D ive Media Co sole S applify STDU Viewe Suma a PDF Edi i g ABBYY Fi eReade AbiWo d Adobe I Desig Adobe RoboHelp Aquafadas A la is Wo d P ocesso Book ype Calib e Callig a Au ho Collabo a O li e eXeLea i g Help & Ma ual HelpNDoc iBooks Au ho iS udio Publishe LaTeX Lib eOffice MadCap Fla e Oxyge XML Edi o PagePlus Pages Qua kXP ess Sc ive e Sigil W i e 2epub Ve do sComme cial Apple Books S o e Amazo Ki dle S o e Bae F ee Lib a y Ba es & Noble Book ack BookWalke Feedbooks Google Play Ja i .com Kobo Books o e So y Reade S o e Smashwo ds No comme cial Faded Page Ha hiT us I e e A chive P ojec Gu e be g Aus alia Ca ada Wikisou ce Rela ed Academic jou al publishi g efo m Books B aille e-book Compa iso of e-book eade s Compa iso of iOS e-book eade sof wa e Compa iso of A d oid e-book eade sof wa e E-book le di g Elec o ic publishi g iBooks Au ho Co fe e ce I e a io al Digi al Publishi g Fo um Ki dle si gle OPDS Reflowable docume Self-publishi g Sema ic publishi g Au ho i y co ol Ge e al I eg a ed Au ho i y File (Ge ma y) Na io al lib a ies Spai F a ce (da a) U i ed S a es Japa O he His o ical Dic io a y of Swi ze la d Na io al A chives (US) Re ieved f om "h ps://e .wikipedia.o g/w/i dex.php? i le=Book&oldid=1038533276" Ca ego ies: BooksDocume sPape p oduc sMedia fo ma sHidde ca ego ies: Weba chive empla e wayback li ksCS1 e o s: missi g pe iodicalA icles wi h sho desc ip io Sho desc ip io is diffe e f om Wikida aWikipedia i defi i ely semi-p o ec ed pagesWikipedia i defi i ely move-p o ec ed pagesUse mdy da es f om May 2016A icles co ai i g Old E glish (ca. 450-1100)-la guage ex A icles co ai i g P o o-Ge ma ic-la guage ex A icles co ai i g Russia -la guage ex A icles co ai i g Se bia -la guage ex A icles co ai i g La i -la guage ex A icles eedi g addi io al efe e ces f om May 2017All a icles eedi g addi io al efe e cesA icles co ai i g G eek-la guage ex A icles lacki g eliable efe e ces f om Sep embe 2010All a icles lacki g eliable efe e cesAll a icles wi h u sou ced s a eme sA icles wi h u sou ced s a eme s f om Ap il 2011Pages usi g Sis e p ojec li ks wi h defaul sea chA icles wi h GND ide ifie sA icles wi h BNE ide ifie sA icles wi h BNF ide ifie sA icles wi h LCCN ide ifie sA icles wi h NDL ide ifie sA icles wi h HDS ide ifie sA icles wi h NARA ide ifie s

.css-1 pxlal-Disclaime Tex {fo -family:"Ope Sa s",sa s-se if,Tahoma,A ial;fo -size:10px;fo -weigh :400;-webki -le e -spaci g:0.7px;-moz-le e -spaci g:0.7px;-ms-le e -spaci g:0.7px;le e -spaci g:0.7px;colo :#505050;li e-heigh :12px;fo -family:Ope Sa s,sa s-se if,Tahoma,A ial; ex -alig : igh ;colo :#505050;fo -s yle: o mal;ma gi :0;}Adve iseme

نظر خود را بنویسید

آخرین مطالب